Assessment of vascular function in individuals with type 2 diabetes

Résumé :

INTRODUCTION : In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), vascular complications are the main reason for impaired life expectancy, and diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy are the largest contributors to end-stage renal disease and blindness, respectively. The current study assessed vascular function in subjects with type 2 diabetes, using pulse wave velocity (PWV) technique, the reference standard measure of arterial stiffness.

METHODOLOGY : We conducted a cross-sectional study examining vascular function in 43 diabetic subjetcs and 63 non-diabetic subjects. Vascular function was assessed by a portable tonometer (PulsePen) which determined carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Standard demographic (age, gender, cardiovascular risk factors), clinical (body mass index, blood pressure) and laboratory (glucose, lipids, microalbuminuria) parameters were included in analyses. The state of oxidative stress was also studied.

RESULTS : Our results showed a significantly higher arterial stiffness in T2D subjects compared to non-diabetic subjects. Furthermore, this was associated with a high frequency of arterial hypertension and microalbuminuria. In addition, they had a pro-oxidant state and a dyslipidemia that seem to be factors favoring the occurrence of a decrease in arterial compliance.

CONCLUSION : Chronic hyperglycemia and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species related to T2D appear to be the factors favoring the occurrence of vascular function alterations and angiopathic complications. Thus,the most effective prevention of diabetic complications would likely be to achieve perfect metabolic control. That  goal being unrealistic in the foreseeable future, a diet rich in antioxidant substances and regular practice of physical activities remain an important mean for the prevention of T2D-related vascular accidents.

Mots clés : Diabète de type 2, fonction vasculaire, rigidité artérielle, risque cardiovasculaire, hyperglycémie.

Auteurs : Ndèye Absatou DIAW 1, Ibrahima DIOUF 1, Mbaye SENE 1, Mor DIAW 2, Abdou Khadre SOW, Philomène LOPEZ-SALL 3, Fatou GUEYE, Modou Oumy KANE 1.

1.Laboratoire de Physiologie Pharmaceutique 
2. Laboratoire de Physiologie et d’Explorations Fonctionnelles 
3. Laboratoire de Biochimie Pharmaceutique, FMPO, UCAD; Dakar, Sénégal. 

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